By Dr. Molly Kelly, Enology Extension Educator, Department of Food Science
Penn State Extension hosted a Fruit Winemaking Workshop on January 29th, 2020 at the Historic Acres of Hershey. The following is a review of the presentation given by Dominic Rivard, internationally-renowned wine professional with over 20 years of experience in wine production. Both a sommelier and winemaker, he specializes in fruit, dessert and ice wines. Dominic is the founder of the Fruit Wines of Canada Association and WinePlanet Consulting and promotes fruit wine sales around the world.
Below is a brief summary of his presentation.
Fruit wine is not a new idea, in fact early American agricultural settlers used fruit wine to preserve seasonal berries. Currently fruit wine consumers are interested in new and unique fruit wines that are local and are looking for a variety of options. Fruit wines are usually refreshing and are relatively easy to drink with many meals and provide an option for those who like sweeter wine.
There are also many documented health benefits with fruit wines such as blueberry wine which is high in Oxygen Radical Capacity (ORC) or antioxidants. The sparkling blueberry wine that was served at the event from Old York Cellars in Ringoes, NJ is advertised as having increased levels of antioxidants.
One advantage of producing fruit wines is that fruit is produced year- round throughout parts of North America. One can also use frozen fruit allowing fruit wine producers to have 4+ production cycles per year.
Fruit wines are becoming accepted as a viable alternative to those made from grapes. They also have export potential. For example, in Asia, a wine is a wine, it does not matter what fruit it is made from. In India fruit wines are sold in supermarkets, five-star hotels and restaurants. Fruit wine is already part of some Asian cultures such as Japan and Korea.
When creating a fruit wine one can begin with a grape base with fruit extract sometimes referred to as “Arbor Mist Style”. One can use a grape base with fruit juice referred to as “Wild Vine Style”. Using fruit juice or concentrate creates a more premium fruit wine or “Serious Style” of fruit wine. There are many different styles of this type of wine including low alcohol, fruit fusion, off-dry, sweet fruit, fortified, sparkling and cryo-extracted style. All of these are unique in their production and create a different type of wine.
Some of the wines tasted at the event were from Pennsylvania including a strawberry wine from Benigna’s Creek Winery in Klingerstown, a peach wine from Shade Mountain Winery in Middleburg and a cranberry wine from Armstrong Winery in Halifax. These wines were well received and many attendees were interested in their production practices.
There are four main steps in producing a fruit wine: pre-fermentation processing, fermentation management, post-fermentation processing and aging. During the pre-fermentation process one must have a plan for harvesting and sourcing the initial fruit product. Then the fruit is crushed, pressed and initial sulfite added. One must also decide if they are keeping the skins on during fermentation or removing them.
Different strains of yeast and bacteria might be added during this time before fermentation begins. During the management process, temperatures must be taken to ensure that it is in the optimal yeast fermenting range. Enzymes should be added to assist in the breakdown of the fruit and complex polysaccharides, allowing the yeast to have substrates to ferment the sugars in the fruit.
Processing ends with the clarification of the wine through filtering, ensuring its enzymatic stability and adjusting the acidity before bottling occurs. After the wine is finished there are many laboratory analyses options for the final product.
The steps listed above are similar to those utilized in grape wine production. There are, however, differences in production depending on the type of fruit used. For additional information you may want to reference Dominic’s book “The Ultimate Fruit Winemaker’s Guide” or other fruit wine production reference. Please contact me with any questions.
Dear wine and grape industry member,
The Penn State Wine & Grape Team wants to confirm our commitment to providing you with reliable and timely information to help you during the COVID-19 crisis.
So that we better understand your situation and the impact that the outbreak may be having on your business,we ask that all of our readers who are involved in either a commercial winery, a winery tasting room and/or a vineyard where grapes are grown for commercial production take part in this 15-minute survey and respond by Friday, April 10.
Please feel free to forward the survey link to others who may not be receiving our newsletters, following us on Facebook, etc. Your participation will help us to be more response to your needs.
The Penn State wine & Grape Team
By Andy Muza, Penn State Extension – Erie County
All Penn State Extension meetings have been cancelled at least through May 15, 2020 (which date is subject to change) due to concerns concerning COVID – 19.
Due to meeting cancellations, many Pennsylvania growers with Private Applicator licenses that expire on 3/31/20 are concerned about acquiring their necessary credits before their license expiration date. At this time, PDA is considering extending the March 31, 2020 deadline for Private Applicators and we will inform you if/when an official decision has been made.
If you need either Core or Category Credits by the Tuesday, March 31, 2020 deadline the following Online Recertification Courses are available:
- Penn State’s Pesticide Education Department has an assortment of Core Credit courses online: https://extension.psu.edu/penn-states-online-recertification-courses
Note: Applicators can only take each online course ONCE in their lifetime for recertification credits. The same course cannot be taken more than once for credit because the content does not change.
- Penn State’s Green Industry Team has an online course with 4 Category Credits: Plant HealthDiagnosis: Assessing Plant Diseases, Pests and Problems
This course focuses on ornamental plants, but it has 4 Private Applicator credits as well as 4 credits in categories: 6,7, 18, 23.
- Penn State Extension (Online Courses – Webinars) – category or core credits depending on course https://extension.psu.edu/shopby/pesticide-applicator/online-courses–webinars
Note: If you take and pass the above courses by the March 31, 2020 deadline, PDA checks the results several times a month.
Do not pay your renewal online (checks not allowed until further notice) until you have verified with PA Plants (https://www.paplants.pa.gov/PesticideApplicator/ExamSearch.aspx) that your credits have been applied to your license. If your Pesticide License expires on March 31, 2020 deadline and you have not yet acquired the necessary credits, there is a one year grace period when your license is held in escrow. That means that you will not have to take the pesticide examination over again as long as you get the required credits and submit your renewal fee within one year of the expiration date. However, you cannot purchase or apply Restricted Use Pesticides during the grace period, even if you’ve purchased the pesticides while your license was still valid.
- Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture’s approved online recertification courses – Find other approved online recertification courses at the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture’s website at: www.paplants.pa.gov. Highlight Pesticide Programs on the left hand side, then click on Recertification Course Locator. From there, select Online for the meeting type, choose the category you need, from the dropdown menu (e.g., PC – Private Category) and click on Search. A list of meetings will appear and to find more information about the course, click on Details in the first column. Note: A successfully completed course number will count as recertification credits only Once in the lifetime of the applicator.
By Heather Leach, Extension Associate, Penn State Entomology
Quarantine and Permits
In March 2020, the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture (PDA) added 12 counties to the spotted lanternfly (SLF) quarantine, creating a total of 26 counties under a state-imposed quarantine: Allegheny, Beaver, Berks, Blair, Bucks, Carbon, Chester, Columbia, Cumberland, Dauphin, Delaware, Huntingdon, Juniata, Lancaster, Lebanon, Lehigh, Luzerne, Mifflin, Monroe, Montgomery, Northampton, Northumberland, Perry, Philadelphia, Schuylkill and York.
SLF populations are also found in 5 additional states: New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, and West Virginia.
A county is placed under quarantine when evidence of a reproducing population of SLF, such as an egg mass, is found by the PDA. The newly added 12 counties are not completely infested, but rather have a few municipalities with a known infestation, which led to a quarantine being placed on the entire county. This action is taken as a precaution and reflects the importance of awareness for early detection and stopping this pest in these new areas. The SLF quarantine regulates the movement of plants, plant-based materials, and outdoor household items out of the quarantine area to keep this pest from spreading. More information on how to comply with the quarantine can be found on our website.
Businesses/organizations that operate in or travel through quarantined counties are required to obtain a SLF permit. A permit shows other businesses and states that a company has done its due diligence to avoid transporting the pest to new areas. This applies to the entire county quarantined, not just the affected municipalities. Businesses should plan to become permitted as soon as possible and may send any questions regarding the permit to SLFPERMIT@pa.gov. Additionally, businesses may check whether they need a permit by using PDA’s online resource.
Because the populations in the new areas are much smaller compared to the original population in southeastern Pennsylvania, it is critical that we do our part to prevent further spread of this insect to new areas. If you see it, destroy it, take a photo if possible and make note of when, where and how many were seen. Then, report it by calling the SLF hotline at 1-888-422-3359 or report it online . Be sure that you do not move any life stage of SLF, including the egg masses. Newly found SLF populations, such as those in the newly added quarantine area, will be intensively managed by the Pennsylvania and U.S. Departments of Agriculture with the goal of local eradication. To that end, regulatory representatives may need access to properties near the infestation area to conduct treatments or monitoring. We encourage cooperation with these treatments. These officials will always provide proper documentation and identification.
Research is ongoing at Penn State to evaluate best management practices for SLF in vineyards and the impact SLF has on grapevines. A few of the PSU research projects planned for 2020 in vineyards are below. Note that there are many other projects planned (not listed here) that will help to improve our understanding of SLF biology, behavior, and management. In particular, we are looking to evaluate biopesticides (the commercially available fungal pathogen, Beauveria bassiana) on a landscape-scale. If this proves effective, aerial application could be possible and represent a way to control SLF over large areas. Additionally, researchers from USDA are currently evaluating biological control (parasitoid wasps) to potentially be released in the U.S. for control of SLF. This is a long-term program and will require several more years of data to determine if release might be possible. Stay tuned for updates on this research!
- Determine the effect of SLF feeding on grapevine physiology (led by Michela Centinari)
- Evaluate insecticides and biopesticides for SLF efficacy (led by David Biddinger)
- Evaluate phenology and document damage in vineyards (led by Heather Leach)
- Evaluate netting and traps for SLF in vineyards (led by Heather Leach)
- Evaluate in-field insecticide programs for SLF control (led by Heather Leach)
- Evaluate the ability for SLF to transmit viruses (e.g. Red Blotch, Pierce’s Disease, etc.) (led by Cristina Rosa)
Given the large numbers of egg masses laid in the fall and the mild winter, we expect a large population of SLF in 2020. Significant damage has been reported from SLF feeding on grapevines, including increased susceptibility to winter injury, failure of vines to set fruit in the subsequent year, and death of vines. SLF should be considered as a landscape-level pest– it has a broad host range and is not just present in your vineyard. When you consider management, remember to think about wooded areas surrounding your vineyard and other possible hosts they may feed on.
No SLF currently in your area: Tree-of-heaven is a preferred host for SLF and is also invasive; it is frequently found on wood edges or in disturbed habitats. Scout for tree-of-heaven on and around your property. Monitor tree-of-heaven season-long for SLF, along with your vineyard edge (especially vines near the wood edge). Train all vineyard employees on the proper identification of SLF and to report it if they see it. Monitoring (visual inspection) should be emphasized in the late summer/early fall when detection of SLF as adults is most likely.
Low SLF populations: Typically, you will see only a few SLF in your first 1-2 years after detecting SLF in your vineyard. Likely, this represents SLF beginning to start a population in your area but is still in low numbers. In subsequent years, we tend to see large populations that infest vineyards and are most problematic beginning in late August through October. As above, monitor your vineyard edge and any tree-of-heaven in your area for SLF. See below for information regarding thresholds and insecticide recommendations, but you may not need to intensively manage your vineyard until populations grow larger.
High SLF populations: There may be a large number of egg masses in your vineyard and the surrounding landscape resulting from last year’s population. While we have not fully evaluated egg mass removal in vineyards as a management tactic, many growers feel that this did not help them control adult SLF later in the season. Moreover, only Lorsban (chlorpyrifos) has been found to be effective at killing egg masses, and nymphs are much easier to kill. Based on our observations, SLF nymphs are seldom problematic in vineyards. In mid-May through early June, after SLF hatch, you should scout for SLF nymphs on your vines. If large numbers are found (~15 per vine or more), we suggest you apply a contact insecticide. Nymphs are fairly easy to control with good coverage and several insecticide options are available, including products that will also help with Japanese Beetle (e.g. carbaryl). See a full list of insecticides for SLF here.
Expect adult SLF to begin arriving in low numbers to your vineyard in late July. On average, there are 30 days between first adult detection and peak SLF activity in vineyards. Regular scouting is imperative during the high dispersal phase of adult SLF, which begins in late August. SLF may continually invade your vineyard from the surrounding landscape and will be most problematic at the vineyard edge, especially vines close to trees or a woodlot. Please note that we do not currently have thresholds for SLF numbers on vines, but we are actively researching this question. Researchers from Korea, another region invaded by SLF, suggested a threshold of 5-10 SLF per vine throughout your vineyard. We have not confirmed these numbers on vines in the U.S. (or by age, variety, vine size, etc.), but this threshold (5-10/vine) might be a good place to start. Because spatial distribution is not equal, you may exceed these numbers at your vineyard edge (>400 per vine) but be much lower in your vineyard interior (0-10 per vine). If possible, spray select “problem areas” only. SLF invade close to and during harvest, making the insecticide options limited to those with short pre-harvest intervals (PHIs). The most commonly used short PHI compounds include: carbaryl, malathion, zeta-cypermethrin, and dinotefuran. For post-harvest application, bifenthrin and thiamethoxam offer the best long-residual activity. Initial field data from 2019 suggests that bifenthrin will offer greater residual activity than thiamethoxam. See a full list of insecticides for SLF here.
Survey on SLF for Grape Industry
To better assess the SLF problem in vineyards, we need more information about its distribution and population levels. If you are in the SLF quarantine zone, please fill out this quick survey: https://forms.gle/SvSupqYLo5QTwciV9
By Lauren Briggs, Research Technologist, Department of Plant Science, Michela Centinari, Assistant Professor of Viticulture, Department of Plant Science, and Heather Leach, Extension Associate, Department of Entomology
If your vineyard is in or near the spotted lanternfly quarantine zone, scouting for egg masses can provide information that will be useful for making management decisions in the next few months. Take note of patterns in the distribution of egg masses through the vineyard, checking favored spots including fenceposts, the undersides of cordons, the base of the trunks, and vines near the wooded edge. Examine host trees in the tree line including tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus), maples, and black walnut, that may be harboring eggs. Management options for egg masses are outlined below, summarized from the Penn State Extension publication Spotted Lanternfly Management in Vineyards.[i]
For a small number of egg masses or a small vineyard, egg masses can be scraped from the vine, then placed in alcohol or thoroughly crushed to kill the eggs. If eggs are found on metal posts, they can be burned using a propane torch. In larger vineyards, however, spraying may be a more feasible option, as recent studies report ovicidal action of a few chemicals. Studies carried out in 2018 and 2019 found that Lorsban Advanced (chlorpyrifos, 1qt/acre), when applied before budbreak, had excellent efficacy (100% spotted lanterfly egg mortality), though it is not currently labeled for spotted lanternfly. Chlorpyrifos can only be applied once per season as a pre-bloom for other pests including brown marmorated stinkbug, mealybug, scale, and cutworm, and application must occur before bud break to avoid phytotoxic effects. JMS Stylet-Oil (paraffinic oil, 3% rate) also had efficacy against SLF egg masses but was much lower than chlorpyrifos – 51-71% egg mortality, while the control mortality in these studies was 35%.
It may be preferable to wait until nymphs emerge in the spring to apply a chemical treatment. Several insecticides are effective against nymphs and labeled for spotted lanternfly (see the table from Penn State Extension’s publication below), and it is likely that standard early season applications of insecticides for other vineyard pests (e.g. Japanese beetle) will also kill any SLF nymphs present. If nymph populations are concentrated on a few vines, spot treatment may be an option as well, with high knockdown insecticides being preferred over those with extended residual activity.
Ultimately, early season spotted lanternfly treatments may reduce spring nymph populations but may not affect infestation by adults later in the season, as adult populations are quite mobile. Management decisions will depend on available time and labor, and the severity of the infestation.
Assessing Bud Mortality prior to Pruning
Assessing bud mortality before pruning is an important practice that should be done when low temperatures reach values that can damage the vines. We encourage owners and managers of vineyards infested with spotted lanternfly to assess bud mortality regardless if their site experienced low temperatures that could damage their varieties. Our preliminary results indicated that spotted lanternfly-phloem feeding might reduce bud freeze tolerance, thus its ability to survive cold temperatures.
How to sample canes to determine bud mortality:
- Collect and evaluate canes for each variety separately, being certain to compare bud mortality for each variety based on the block from which the canes were harvested (i.e., block one, located at the top of the hill, and block two, located at the bottom of the hill).
- If the vines are caned-pruned, the canes close to the head should be prioritized. Regardless of the pruning system, canes can be trimmed to 10-12 buds, and bud evaluation should be conducted on the first 10 buds.
- The minimum number of buds recommended for each variety in a block is 100 (at least 10 samples).
- The canes should be taken indoors and left at room temperature for 24-48 hours before bud evaluation. This will ensure that the buds have thawed, and damaged tissue will have enough time to turn brown.
You can use a sharp razor blade to section the buds. For proper evaluation, the cuts must be made at the correct depth. For example, if the bud is cut too deep you could mistake an injured bud for a healthy one. By cutting too deeply you might reach the bud cushion, which would be green, and miss the more shallow brown/injured tissue. The picture below shows a cross-sectioned bud which sustained cold injury (figure 2). The large primary bud in the center is dead (brown) while the secondary and tertiary buds are healthy (green tissue).
For more information on how to collect canes, properly cut buds, and evaluate damage, please refer to: Evaluating Bud Injury Prior to Pruning – Part 1 and Evaluating Bud Injury Prior to Pruning – Part 2, two videos from Cornell University Cooperative Extension.
Record bud mortality data by variety and block. At the end of the evaluation, divide the number of primary dead buds by the total number of buds sampled to calculate the percentage of injury. If the level of primary bud injury is above 15%, modify your pruning strategies to leave a greater number of buds proportional to the level of damage. In the table below, we reported bud mortality thresholds and recommended adjustments to pruning strategies as suggested by Zabadal et al. (2007) “Winter injury to grapevines and methods of protection.”2
Level of bud injury about 50% would require retraining new trunks and renewing larger parts of the vine, but these topics will not be addressed within this post.
We invite grape growers that have assessed or will assess bud mortality to share their results with us by emailing Michela Centinari (firstname.lastname@example.org), Heather Leach (email@example.com) or Lauren Briggs (firstname.lastname@example.org).
2 Zabadal, TJ, Dami IE, Goffinet, MC, Martinson, TE, and Chien, ML. 2007. Winter injury to grapevines and methods of protection. Extension Bulletin E, 2030, p.106.