Reflections: Winemaking at Penn State

By: Denise M. Gardner

I can officially say that I have now been involved with 5 harvests here at Penn State, with my first harvest in 2011.  Returning to Pennsylvania from California in 2011 could not have been a greater challenge to an incoming newbie, and I think it will forever be one of the most difficult vintages I have had the experience to deal with to date.  Not only did I manage to lose an entire lot of finished wine down the drain (long story…), but I recognized the need to bring PA-produced research wines to Pennsylvania’s growing wine industry during a daunting season from a weather perspective.  Additionally, I saw an opportunity to educate students on how to make wine while they helped me process fruit from the research vineyards.  In that first year, 5 lucky college seniors helped me process about 8 different varieties from the NE-1020 “multi-state evaluation of wine grape cultivars and clones” project, which was being financially supported by a multi-state SCRI grant.

Looking back today, I now see that the 2011 vintage provided me with a starting point to work with students and a series of winemaking lessons for future vintages that I continue to recall even today.

I was actually one of those bright-eyed students back in my younger days.  I stumbled upon Penn State Extension and Mark Chien by pestering local Extension educators on how to grow grapevines.  I still recall the many opportunities Mark, specifically, provided for me despite my age or lack of wine knowledge.  Mark taught me how to plant a vineyard, from site selection to digging holes for a trellis, how to monitor vine growth through proper pruning techniques, how to ferment grapes into wine, and the various stages involved in production that went beyond the basic texts on how to make wine.  I connected with industry members and was awarded an experience to intern at Lallemand in Toulouse, France before I reached my freshman year in college.

Figure 1: Extension Enologist, Denise Gardner, developed an interest in wine grape growing and production throughout high school.  Photos, from left to right, include an annual fermentation lesson during a high school agriculture class, building a trellis system at the local high school, grape vines after 2 years of growth at the high school vineyard, and a lesson from past Extension Viticulturist, Mark Chien, on how to properly prune grapevines at a PA vineyard.  Photos provided by: Denise M. Gardner

Figure 1: Extension Enologist, Denise Gardner, developed an interest in wine grape growing and production throughout high school. Photos, from left to right, include an annual fermentation lesson during a high school agriculture class, building a trellis system at the local high school, grape vines after 2 years of growth at the high school vineyard, and a lesson from past Extension Viticulturist, Mark Chien, on how to properly prune grapevines at a PA vineyard. Photos provided by: Denise M. Gardner

When I arrived to Penn State in 2011, I had a memory of the opportunities Extension awarded me and a goal of working with students that may have an interest in wine production.  I still laugh when I recall a number of students that experienced a harvest at a local winery, only to tell me it was “the hardest thing they have ever had to do.”

While many may not make the connection, food science offers an incredible foundation of knowledge that is beneficial for winemakers and those whom wish to go into fermented beverage production.  Students engage in a series of classes to develop a foundation in chemistry, microbiology, and biotechnology.  Additionally, they learn important processing parameters that are affiliated with winemaking: sanitation, quality control practices, safety when processing, proper sampling techniques, and experimental practices to improve food/beverage products.

For that reason, the annual harvest and production of wine with use of undergraduate and graduate students’ support has blossomed into many positive ventures:

  • Since 2010, Penn State Food Science and several Pennsylvania wineries have sponsored student co-ops at wineries during vintage seasons. These experiences educate students in wine production, and specifically provided venues for “real world” experiences in the wine industry.
  • Undergraduate students have embarked on undergraduate research experiences pertaining to wine research within the College of Agricultural Sciences. Several of these projects have benefited the local wine industry.
  • Graduates from Food Science have started to “harvest hop” to the southern hemisphere for winemaking and production experiences internationally. Virginia (Smith) Mitchell, head winemaker at Galer Estate Winery, traveled to Australia in the winter months of 2013 while Allie Miller will travel to New Zealand for the 2016 harvest.  These experiences bring a global perspective and education that facilitate innovative changes to the growing Pennsylvania wine industry.
  • Several students have benefited from permanent placement in the wine and fermented beverage industries upon graduation, and many have committed to Pennsylvania operations. The experience gained through research winemaking here at Penn State is invaluable and leaves them with base knowledge in wine production.
  • Many students volunteer for Extension programming, which gives them the opportunity to present research and educational experiences to industry members as well as network with potential employers (you!).
  • Graduate research has flourished. Both Dr. Ryan Elias and Dr. Michela Centinari have several graduate students that are working on applied research projects which address winemaker and grower needs reflected in previous industry needs assessments.
  • Since 2011, the number of research wines being made has more than quadrupled. Today, we have outgrown the equipment I used in 2011 and outgrown our storage capacity for research wines.  The wines produced at Penn State are annually evaluated at regional Extension events.

With such a positive focus on student development and interaction with Pennsylvania’s grape and wine industry, the 2015 vintage was expected to be our best vintage yet!

The 2015 growing season did not leave much hope for Pennsylvania grape growers and winemakers, and I can recall a series of summer meetings in which winemakers from across the state asked me if I was prepared to deal with a lack of fruit and a bunch of rot in our research winemaking curriculum.  Luckily, as Michela will reflect upon next week, the season shaped up to be one of the best I have experienced in my time here at Penn State.

For 2015, we recruited 10 interested undergraduate students for the 2015 harvest season to assist with the research harvests and wine production.   This is double the quantity of students that typically enroll in an independent study experience associated with enology.

Students participate in regular wine processing operations, which can be seen in Figures 2 – 7: crushing, pressing, monitoring fermentation, and completing wines through malolactic fermentation.  Additionally, at the end of the semester, each enrolled student presents on a wine grape variety of interest.

Many students arrive with a genuine interest in fermentation science, or would like to get more experience in food production.  Many of them leave the fall semester with future undergraduate research opportunities, internships/co-ops at wineries, or develop an expectation to graduate with permanent placement in the fermented beverage industry.

Figure 2: The undergraduate students start each fall with a review of lab analysis techniques to learn how to properly analyze juice and wine, which comes in handy during the harvest season.  Photo by: Denise M. Gardner

Figure 2: The undergraduate students start each fall with a review of lab analysis techniques to learn how to properly analyze juice and wine, which comes in handy during the harvest season. Photo by: Denise M. Gardner

Figure 3: Crush is an essential part of the independent study class and graduate student research.  Careful care is taken by the students to ensure that proper sanitation is taken, accurate yields are measured, and that treatments are adequately separated into replicate fermentations. Photos by: Denise M. Gardner

Figure 3: Crush is an essential part of the independent study class and graduate student research. Care is taken by the students to ensure that proper sanitation is utilized, accurate yields are measured, and that treatments are adequately separated into replicate fermentations. Photos by: Denise M. Gardner

Figure 4: Prepping inoculums for primary and malolactic fermentations is an important part of what the students learn how to do throughout the semester.  Here, Blair and Cara prep hydration nutrient and yeasts for inoculations. Photo by: Denise M. Gardner

Figure 4: Prepping inoculums for primary and malolactic fermentations is an important part of what the students learn how to do throughout the semester. Here, Blair and Cara prep hydration nutrient and yeasts for inoculations. Photo by: Denise M. Gardner

Figure 5: Students also learn how to properly inoculate wines for primary fermentation.  A: Marielle, Stephanie, Joe, Garrett, Gary and Blair inoculate Riesling wines; Photo by: Denise M. Gardner; B: Denise and Gary inoculate Cabernet Sauvignon musts; Photo by: Marlena Sheridan.

Figure 5: Students also learn how to properly inoculate wines for primary fermentation. A: Marielle, Stephanie, Joe, Garrett, Gary and Blair inoculate Riesling wines; Photo by: Denise M. Gardner; B: Denise and Gary inoculate Cabernet Sauvignon musts; Photo by: Marlena Sheridan.

Figure 6: Racking techniques without a pump. [From left to right] Liv, Maria, and Marielle rack Riesling juice into replicate fermentation carboys.  Photo by: Denise M. Gardner

Figure 6: Racking techniques without a pump. [From left to right] Liv, Maria, and Marielle rack Riesling juice into replicate fermentation carboys. Photo by: Denise M. Gardner

Figure 7: Pressing [white/rosé] juice or finished [red] wine is always an experience. A: Gary, George, and Garrett press rosé to prepare for overnight settling, B: Stephanie loads the press with crushed white berries, C: Allie fills a carboy of finished red wine, D: Laura, Marlena, Gary, Garrett, and Blair preparing for red wine pressing, and E: Marielle sits in the splash zone for red wine pressing.  Photos by: Denise M. Gardner

Figure 7: Pressing [white/rosé] juice or finished [red] wine is always an experience. A: Gary, George, and Garrett press rosé to prepare for overnight settling, B: Stephanie loads the press with crushed white berries, C: Allie fills a carboy of finished red wine, D: Laura, Marlena, Gary, Garrett, and Blair preparing for red wine pressing, and E: Marielle sits in the splash zone for red wine pressing. Photos by: Denise M. Gardner

I can’t wait to share some of the 2015 wines with the local industry at the March 2016 PA Wine Marketing & Research Board Symposium or at future Extension Enology events.

As a general reminder, many of these projects are financially supported through the multi-state Grape Wine Quality Eastern U.S. Initiative SCRI grant (which partially funds the NE-1020 variety trial research program), the PA Wine Marketing and Research Board, and the Crouch Fellowship, among other grant agencies.

Here are just a few snap shots that depict everything that we are currently working on for the 2015 harvest season:

Figure 8: This year’s NE-1020 variety trial projects include yeast trials, an evaluation of tartaric acid additions to red wine varieties grown in high potassium vineyard sites (A), and pre-fermentation juice treatments in Vidal Blanc wines (B).  Photos by: Denise M. Gardner

Figure 8: This year’s NE-1020 variety trial projects include yeast trials, an evaluation of tartaric acid additions to red wine varieties grown in high potassium vineyard sites (A), and pre-fermentation juice treatments in Vidal Blanc wines (B). Photos by: Denise M. Gardner

Figure 9:  The Crouch Fellowship currently supports a project pertaining to the impact of spray-on frost protection products on grape and wine quality.  A: Graduate student, Maria Smith, gets ready for a full day of processing after a full day of harvest. B: Marielle and Cara monitor the red wine fermentations through daily punch downs, temperature logs, and Brix measurements.  Photos by: Denise M. Gardner

Figure 9: The Crouch Fellowship currently supports a project pertaining to the impact of spray-on frost protection products on grape and wine quality. A: Graduate student, Maria Smith, gets ready for a full day of processing after a full day of harvest. B: Marielle and Cara monitor the red wine fermentations through daily punch downs, temperature logs, and Brix measurements. Photos by: Denise M. Gardner

Figure 10: Graduate student, Marlena Sheridan, takes a photo of a cluster representation for her research project on red wine color stability. Photo by: Denise M. Gardner

Figure 10: Graduate student, Marlena Sheridan, takes a photo of a cluster representation for her research project on red wine color stability. Photo by: Denise M. Gardner

Figure 11: Graduate student, Laura Homich, enjoys time in the Noiret vineyard for her research project that focuses on the effect of canopy management practices on rotundone (black pepper flavor) development in Noiret grapes and wine.

Figure 11: Graduate student, Laura Homich, enjoys time in the Noiret vineyard collecting berry samples for her research project that focuses on the effect of canopy management practices on rotundone (black pepper flavor) development in Noiret grapes and wine. Photo by: Maria Smith

Figure 12: Graduate student, Gal Kreitman, prepares inoculates on Vidal Blanc in relation to a project on the influence of copper on thiol-containing aroma/flavor compounds. Photo by: Denise M. Gardner

Figure 12: Graduate student, Gal Kreitman, prepares inoculates on Vidal Blanc in relation to a project on the influence of copper on thiol-containing aroma/flavor compounds. Photo by: Denise M. Gardner

Figure 13: Another full year of research winemaking at Penn State – vintage 2015.  Photo by: Denise M. Gardner

Figure 13: Another full year of research winemaking at Penn State – vintage 2015. Photo by: Denise M. Gardner

To follow all of our annual research harvest activities, please ‘Like’ us on Facebook: www.facebook.com/PennStateExtensionEnology

 

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  1. Looking Back at the 2015 Season | Wine & Grapes U. - November 13, 2015

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